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cycling of essential nutrients, to largescale processes such as effects of ocean currents on marine productivity. The Living Ocean: Understanding and Protecting Marine Biodiversity, 2nd. Discover the diverse array of undergraduate degrees and programs available. Biological oceanographers compete for a limited pool of funds to do their research by submitting proposals or bidding on contracts to various scientific agencies. Biological oceanographers also study factors that influence biological diversity within the oceans, and the importance of diversity in maintaining biological function. Many oceanographers use research vessels from which they lower instruments and specialized water sampling gear into the water. Oceanographic research entails the sampling of seawater and marine life for close study, the remote sensing of oceanic processes with aircraft and Earth-orbiting satellites, and the exploration of the seafloor by means of deep-sea drilling and seismic profiling of the terrestrial crust below the ocean. Other ways oceanic sediments are studied are by dredging processes and deep-sea exploration projects such as the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP which obtains samples of seafloor sediment from the entire world. Boston, MA: Addison-Wesley Educational Publishers, 1997. In other cases, the oceanographer must go into the water to directly sample and observe certain types of organisms such as zooplankton.
A geological oceanographer studies the topography, structure, and geological processes of the ocean floor to discover how the Earth and oceans were formed and how ongoing processes may change them in the future. GeoHab (Marine, geo logical and Biological, hab itat Mapping) is an international association of marine scientists studying biophysical (i.e., geologic and oceanographic) indicators of benthic habitats and ecosystems as proxies for biological communities and species diversity. GeoHab mailing-list and, join us on facebook). Youll want to come visit. Other approaches involve underwater submersible vehicles to gain access to biological communities deep in the ocean, such as those associated with deep-sea hydrothermal vents. Biological oceanography is a field of study that seeks to understand what controls the distribution and abundance of different types of marine life, and how living organisms influence and interact with processes in the oceans. These biogeochemical cycles are key in understanding large-scale phenomena such as global warming. Other important areas of study include understanding linkages between different levels of the marine food web, from phytoplankton all the way up to fish and marine mammals.