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the science and technology of biocatalysis, bioprocesses, agricultural biotechnology, biomedical. Furthermore, the strategic alliances formed between colleges of agriculture and private life science companies have become a point of contention among agricultural scientists ( 4 ). Typically, each transgenic event (i.e. There are estimated to be upwards of 1,500 TFs encoded by the Arabidopsis, genome comprising more than 5 of the genes of this plant ( Riechmann., 2000 ; Riechmann and Ratcliffe, 2000 ; Riechmann, 2002 ; Qu and Zhu, 2006 ). Average scores on the Education and Promotion, Precautionary, and University and Corporation Linkage scales varied significantly across agricultural disciplines ( Table 1 ). One argument against constitutively activating the pathogen defense response is that it often results in negative side effects such as growth retardation (similar to what has been observed with the CBF genes used in abiotic stress tolerance). More intensive public educational programs about biotechnology. A survey of current publications reveals that many research groups are now focusing their efforts toward systems biology projects aimed at assembling all of the genes in the genome into transcription networks (of which TFs form the hubs) or protein interaction networks underpinning major biological.
Biotechnology: An Arigcultural View
Nat Genet 40 : 181188 OpenUrl CrossRef PubMed Lee JH, Hong JP, Oh SK, Lee S, Choi D, Kim WT (2004) The ethylene-responsive factor like protein 1 (Caerflp1) of hot pepper ( Capsicum annuum.) interacts in vitro with both GCC and DRE/CRT sequences with. Another potentially important approach for determining the best crop intervention points and pathway optimization is dynamic modeling of local regulatory circuits informed by the various systems biology tools. Traditional breeding is limited by the amount of genetic diversity in the germplasm of a particular crop; transgenic technologies bypass genetic barriers, allowing for the possibility of modifying regulatory pathways in one plant using TFs from another plant. Othereditor'S choice series ON THE next generation OF biotech crops. Another major hurdle for commercializing a genetically modified crop is securing approvals from regulatory authorities. Crop Sci 39 : OpenUrl CrossRef Fischer U, Droge-Laser W (2004) Overexpression of NtERF5, a new member of the tobacco ethylene response transcription factor family enhances resistance to tobacco mosaic virus. Studies of individual TFs have revealed that genes from the same family often regulate similar physiological functions even among very different plant species, and that overall regulation of most biological processes in the plant cell can be linked to one or more TF families (.
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Two TFs have been identified as playing a major role in reducing grain shattering in domesticated rice plants. Taken together, these results indicate that ERF TFs offer the exciting potential for engineering both biotic and abiotic stress tolerance in the same plant. Most importantly, in field trials, the transgenic lines gave higher grain yields than control lines under drought conditions. Other TF families strongly implicated in pathogen defense include the wrkys, bZIPs, and MYBs ( Eulgem., 2000 ; Singh., 2002 ; Gurr and Rushton, 2005a ; Eulgem and Somssich, 2007 ). Further strategies for improving intrinsic yield include the possibility of modifying cell-cycle regulation to enhance plant growth rates ( Beemster., 2005 ; Van Camp, 2005 ). Transgenic plants comprising polynucleotides encoding transcription factors that confer disease tolerance. The activation-tagged line and reconstructed overexpressing lines showed drought and salt tolerance. These families provide a large genetic resource for engineering broad-spectrum disease resistance in crop plants because they may be used to manipulate native plant defense response pathways in a pathogen nonspecific manner. On the other hand, biological scientists are the most favorably disposed toward moving forward rapidly with a biotechnology agenda. This modeling approach has been used to reveal previously unidentified components of clock function.