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on female nutrition and serve as an enforcement device against rival males. The mating plugs of Drosophila hibisci are gelatinous, hard composites that adheres to the uterus of the female in the event of copulation. Males and females differ in the following general components of fitness, thus leading to sexual conflict. 30 A study focused on the mating effects of bed bugs of other species such as female Hesperocimex sonorensis and a male Hesperocimex cochimiensis. "Widespread Adaptive Evolution of Drosophila Genes with Sex-Biased Expression".
However, males seeking mates have different preferences depending on whether they are unpaired or paired. Additionally, an abnormal number of sex chromosomes ( aneuploidy ) may be present, such as Turner's syndrome, in which a single X chromosome is present, and Klinefelter's syndrome, in which two X chromosomes and a Y chromosome are present, XYY syndrome and xxyy syndrome. Others, such as spiders, ants and orcas are female-dominated. The trait value bar at the bottom of the accompanying figure indicates the relative intensity of each trait. The Oxford Companion to the History of Modern Science, Oxford University Press, 2003, "genetics". 34 Male spiders Harpactea sadistica perform extra-genitalic traumatic insemination with their needle-like intromittent organs that puncture the female's wall, resulting in direct insemination. The male places his intromittent organ within the female genitalia, following the piercing of her inner wall, to inject toxic semen. 7 Non-human mammals use several genes on the Y chromosome. "Reducing a cost of traumatic insemination: Female bedbugs evolve a unique organ". In these species, one or more genes are present on their Y chromosome that determine maleness. For example, females may behave in ways that are considerably biased towards mating and fertilization success due the attractiveness of males who exhibit a deceptive or exaggerated secondary sex characteristic. The resulting uncertainty of who the father is hence reduces the occurrence of attacks, given the newly incited risk of potentially harming their own offspring.
Roles of, female and Male Genotype in Post-Mating Cryptic female choice - Wikipedia Female copulatory vocalizations - Wikipedia Nutrition Ecology Research Papers - Academia Female nursery web spiders judge males based on gift